Immunities of African State Officials and the Requests to cooperate pursuant to Warrants issued under the Rome Statute

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This study examines Nigeria-South Africa relations based on the themes of cooperation, confrontation and competition. It examines the origin, dynamism and challenges of Nigeria-South Africa relations putting in realist perspective, South Africa’s perceived confrontational foreign policy which negates the principle of reciprocity. Hence the adoption of the realist theory which argues that Nigeria-South Africa relations should be conducted on the basis of national interest backed by elements of power. A combination of qualitative method was engaged in this study, and the chronological scope of the study is 1994-2017. It is recommended that South Africans especially their youths be educated on the role Nigeria played in their liberation struggle while Nigeria should concern herself with improving her image as the ‘giant of Africa’, and work hard to develop infrastructure, diversify her economy and adapt to the dynamic foreign policy environments of the 21st century.

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Author

ISBN

Publication Date

June 10, 2024

No. of Pages

296

Size

Binding

Paperback

About the author

Aghem Hanson Ekori, holds a PhD in Law/LLD, and he is an International Law researcher currently lecturing at UNISA. His research interests are in the field of international law rules on Immunities, International criminal law, International Human Rights Law, and International economic laws.

Table of contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Acknowledgment ………………………………………………………………1

Dedication ………………………………………………………………3

Abstract……………………………………………………5

Key Words ……………………………………………………………..7

List of Abbreviations…………………………………………………………………9

 

CHAPTER ONE :

INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

1.0 Introduction……………………………………………………………………13

1.1 Background to the study………………………………………………………………………15

1.2 Problem statement ……………………………………………………………………………….21

1.3 Research questions ………………………………………………………………………………24

1.3.1 Primary research question ………………………………………………………………………….24

1.3.2 Secondary research question …………………………………………………………………….24

1.4 Aims and objectives of the study……………………………………………………………………25

1.5 Research methodology ………………………………………………………………25

1.6 Literature review …………………………………………………………………………26

1.7 Significance or rationale of the study ……………………………………………………………36

1.8 Limitation of the study …………………………………………………………………………………..37

1.9 Framework of this study…………………………………………………………………………………37

 

CHAPTER TWO :

HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE AND THE EVOLUTION OF INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL LAW

2.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………41

2.2 Historical background and evolution of the international criminal court …………………………………………………………………42

2.2.1 Origin of international criminal justice …………………………………………………………43

2.2.2 The creation of the International Military

Tribunal at Nuremberg …………………………………………………………………48

2.2.3 International criminal law after Nuremberg…………………………………………………50

2.3 The Rome Statute …………………………………………………………………56

2.3.1 The genesis of the ICC …………………………………………………………………56

2.3.2 The structure of the ICC …………………………………………………..……………60

2.3.2.1 The Presidency …………………………………………………………………60

2.3.2.2 The Judiciary ………………………………………………………………….61

2.3.2.3 The Office of the Prosecutor …………………………………………………………………62

2.3.2.4 The Registry ……………………………………………………………………………………………..62

2.4 Individual criminal responsibility and immunity ………………………………………………..63

2.5 Immunities of African state officials …………………………………………………………………65

2.5.1 Lessons from the Pinochet case …………………………………………………………………66

2.5.2 The Arrest Warrant case ………………………………………………………………….68

2.5.3 The Ghaddafi case ………………………………………………………………..69

2.5.4 The Kenyatta case …………………………………………………………………71

2.5.5 The Al Bashir case …………………………………………………………………73

2.6 Concluding remarks …………………………………………………………………75

 

CHAPTER THREE :

AN EXAMINATION THE BASIS OF INTERNATIONAL LAW IMMUNITIES

3.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………………………….77

3.2 Basic theories of immunities …………………………………………………………………78

3.3 Notions of international law immunities……………………………………………………80

3.3.1 Diplomatic immunity …………………………………………………………………81

3.3.2 Consular immunity …………………………………………………………………82

3.3.3 Special Missions immunity …………………………………………………………………84

3.3.4 State immunity …………………………………………………………………86

3.3.4.1 Absolute immunity of the state …………………………………………………………………86

3.3.4.2 Restrictive immunity of the state …………………………………………………………………89

3.3.4.3 The Judgment of the ICJ in the case of German v. Italy: Greece Intervening …………………………………………………………………93

3.4 Immunities of head of state and other state officials ………………………………………..95

3.4.1 Head of state immunity …………………………………………………………………96

3.4.1.1 Immunity ratione materiae …………………………………………………………………99

3.4.1.1.1 The purpose of immunity ratione materiae……………………………………………….101

3.4.1.1.2 The nature of immunity ratione materiae…………………………………………………102

3.4.1.1.3 State officials covered by immunity ratione materiae………………………………104

3.4.1.1.4 Limitations and exceptions to immunity ratione materiae ………………………………………………………………106

3.4.1.2 Immunity ratione personae ………………………………………………………………109

3.4.1.2.1 The purpose of immunity ratione personae……………………………………………..110

3.4.1.2.2 The nature of immunity ratione personae…………………….………………………….111

3.4.1.2.3 State officials entitled to immunity ratione personae………………………………112

3.4.1.2.4 Exceptions and limitations to immunity ratione personae……………………………………………………………………………………118

3.4.2 Immunity of other state officials ……………………………………………………………….120

3.5 Immunity of incumbent and former heads of state………………………………………….122

3.6 The erosion of heads of state immunities and other state officials…………………125

3.7 Concluding remarks ………………………………………………………………129

 

CHAPTER FOUR :

IMMUNITY AND WAIVER OF IMMUNITY

4.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………………….131

4.2 Immunity as a defence under Article 98 of the Rome Statute…………………..……133

4.3 Waiver of immunity under Articles 27 and 98 of the Rome Statute ……………….134

4.4 Other forms of waiver of immunities ……………………………………………………………..138

4.4.1 Express or explicit waiver of immunities of state officials ……………………………139

4.4.2 Implied or implicit waiver of the immunities of state officials………………..…….141

4.5 Waiver of the immunities of state officials in

respect of human rights and jus cogens violations ……………………………………………..143

4.5.1 Waiver of immunity ratione materiae of

state officials in respect of jus cogens violations ……………………………………..…………145

4.5.2 The immunity ratione personae of state officials is not waived by jus cogens violations ……………………………………………………………..…150

4.6 United Nations Security Council Resolution 1593 of 2005 and the waiver of Al Bashir immunities ……………………………………………………………..…157

4.6.1 UNSC Resolution 1593 of 2005 and the immunity ratione personae of Al Bashir ……………………………………………………………..…158

4.6.2 UNSC Resolution 1593 of 2005 and the immunity ratione materiae of Former President Al Bashir ………………………………………………….….161

4.7 The Creation of the African Criminal Court ……………………………………………….……165

4.7.1 The composition and structure of the African Criminal Court ………………….……167

4.7.2 The jurisdiction of the African Criminal Court ………………………………………………169

4.7.3 The immunities of African state officials before the African Criminal Court ………………………………………………………….……170

4.8 Concluding remarks ………………………………………………………………………….……………..172

 

CHAPTER FIVE :

OBLIGATIONS OF STATES TO ACT UPON APPEALS TO ARREST AND SURRENDER STATE OFFICIALS WITH IMMUNITY TO THE ICC

5.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………………..175

5.2 The obligation of states parties to cooperate pursuant to warrants issued by the ICC as in the Al Bashir case ……………………………………………177

5.3 The obligation of non-states parties to cooperate pursuant to warrants issued by the ICC as in the Al Bashir case……………………………………………180

5.4 Pacta tertiis nec nocent nec prosunt and non-states parties to the treaty ………………………………………………………………188

5.5 Treaty obligations, Security Council Resolution 1593 and customary International law rules ………………………………………………………………190

5.6 The Jordan Decision in relation to states cooperation and immunities…………………………………………………………………………195

5.7 Concluding remarks …………………………………………………………………………………………197

 

CHAPTER SIX :

ICC JURISDICTION OVER CRIMES

6.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………………………..201

6.2 The ICC’s limited jurisdiction over international crimes…………………………………. 205

6.3 The accusatorial or adversarial and the inquisitorial systems before the ICC ……………………………………………………………….208

6.4 The rights of the accused before the ICC………………………………………………………..212

6.5 The AU Model National Law on Universal Jurisdiction…………………………………….215

6.6 The South African’s Rome Statute Implementation Act ………………………………….218

6.6.1 The South African jurisdiction over crimes under the Implementation Act ………………………………………………………………219

6.6.2 Arrest and cooperation with the ICC under the Implementation Act ………………………………………………………………221

6.6.3 Immunities and impunity under the Implementation Act ………………………………223

6.7 Concluding remarks ……………………………………………………………………………………… 224

 

CHAPTER SEVEN :

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

7.1 Background ………………………………………………………………………………………229

7.2 Findings of the Study ……………………………………………………………………………………229

7.3 Conclusions……………………………………………………………………234

7.4 Recommendations ……………………………………………………………………………………….238

BIBLIOGRAPHY………………………………………………………………………243